Highlights
  • Perspective | August 31, 2019
    Young Jun Oh, Pyung-Lim Han and C. Justin Lee
  • Short Communication | August 31, 2019

    Currently, compared to jaw-closing (JC) α-motoneurons, the information on the distribution and morphology of glutamatergic synapses on the jaw-closing (JC) γ-motoneurons, which may help elucidate the mechanism of isometric contraction of the JC muscle, is very limited. This study investigated the distribution and ultrastructural features of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1)- and VGLUT2-immunopositive (+) axon terminals (boutons) on JC γ-motoneurons by retrograde tracing with horseradish peroxidase, electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, and quantitative analysis. About 35% of the boutons on identified JC γ-motoneurons were VGLUT+, and of those, 99% were VGLUT2+. The fraction of VGLUT1+ boutons of all boutons and the percentage of membrane of JC γ-motoneurons covered by these boutons were significantly lower than those for the JC α-motoneurons, revealed in our previous work. The bouton volume, mitochondrial volume, and active zone area of the VGLUT2+ boutons on the JC γ-motoneurons were uniformly small. These findings suggest that the JC γ-motoneurons, in contrast to the JC α-motoneurons, receive generally weak glutamatergic synaptic input almost exclusively from VGLUT2+ premotoneurons that form direct synapse with motoneurons.

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    Sook Kyung Park, Jae Hyun Hong, Jae Kwang Jung et al.
  • Original Article | August 31, 2019

    The function of microglia/macrophages after ischemic stroke is poorly understood. This study examines the role of microglia/macrophages in the focal infarct area after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rhesus monkeys. We measured infarct volume and neurological function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and non-human primate stroke scale (NHPSS), respectively, to assess temporal changes following MCAO. Activated phagocytic microglia/macrophages were examined by immunohistochemistry in post-mortem brains (n=6 MCAO, n=2 controls) at 3 and 24 hours (acute stage), 2 and 4 weeks (subacute stage), and 4, and 20 months (chronic stage) following MCAO. We found that the infarct volume progressively decreased between 1 and 4 weeks following MCAO, in parallel with the neurological recovery. Greater presence of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)-expressing microglia/macrophages was detected in the infarct lesion in the subacute and chronic stage, compared to the acute stage. Surprisingly, 98~99% of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) was found colocalized with CD68-expressing cells. CD68-expressing microglia/macrophages, rather than CD206+ cells, may exert anti-inflammatory effects by secreting TGFβ after the subacute stage of ischemic stroke. CD68+ microglia/macrophages can therefore be used as a potential therapeutic target.

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    Hyeon-Gu Yeo, Jung Joo Hong, Youngjeon Lee et al.
  • Original Article | August 31, 2019

    Absence seizures (AS) are generalized non-convulsive seizures characterized by a brief loss of consciousness and spike-and-wave discharges (SWD) in an electroencephalogram (EEG). A number of animal models have been developed to explain the mechanisms of AS, and thalamo-cortical networks are considered to be involved. However, the cortical foci have not been well described in mouse models of AS. This study aims to use a high density EEG in pathophysiologically different AS models to compare the spatiotemporal patterns of SWDs. We used two AS models: a pharmacologically induced model (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB model) and a transgenic model (phospholipase beta4 knock-out, PLCβ4 model). The occurrences of SWDs were confirmed by thalamic recordings. The topographical analysis of SWDs showed that the onset and propagation patterns were markedly distinguishable between the two models. In the PLCβ4 model, the foci were located within the somatosensory cortex followed by propagation to the frontal cortex, whereas in the GHB model, a majority of SWDs was initiated in the prefrontal cortex followed by propagation to the posterior cortex. In addition, in the GHB model, foci were also observed in other cortical areas. This observation indicates that different cortical networks are involved in the generation of SWDs across the two models.

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    Soojung Lee, Eunjin Hwang, Mina Lee and Jee Hyun Choi
Vol.28 No.4 | August 31, 2019
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2017 Impact Factor 3.810. 2018 Impact Factor 2.360 en Experimental Neurobiology in SCIe As of August 2017 Covered from 2015

Current Issue

  • Perspective | August 31, 2019
    Young Jun Oh, Pyung-Lim Han and C. Justin Lee
  • Short Communication | August 31, 2019

    Currently, compared to jaw-closing (JC) α-motoneurons, the information on the distribution and morphology of glutamatergic synapses on the jaw-closing (JC) γ-motoneurons, which may help elucidate the mechanism of isometric contraction of the JC muscle, is very limited. This study investigated the distribution and ultrastructural features of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1)- and VGLUT2-immunopositive (+) axon terminals (boutons) on JC γ-motoneurons by retrograde tracing with horseradish peroxidase, electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, and quantitative analysis. About 35% of the boutons on identified JC γ-motoneurons were VGLUT+, and of those, 99% were VGLUT2+. The fraction of VGLUT1+ boutons of all boutons and the percentage of membrane of JC γ-motoneurons covered by these boutons were significantly lower than those for the JC α-motoneurons, revealed in our previous work. The bouton volume, mitochondrial volume, and active zone area of the VGLUT2+ boutons on the JC γ-motoneurons were uniformly small. These findings suggest that the JC γ-motoneurons, in contrast to the JC α-motoneurons, receive generally weak glutamatergic synaptic input almost exclusively from VGLUT2+ premotoneurons that form direct synapse with motoneurons.

    Show more
    Sook Kyung Park, Jae Hyun Hong, Jae Kwang Jung et al.
  • Original Article | August 31, 2019

    The function of microglia/macrophages after ischemic stroke is poorly understood. This study examines the role of microglia/macrophages in the focal infarct area after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rhesus monkeys. We measured infarct volume and neurological function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and non-human primate stroke scale (NHPSS), respectively, to assess temporal changes following MCAO. Activated phagocytic microglia/macrophages were examined by immunohistochemistry in post-mortem brains (n=6 MCAO, n=2 controls) at 3 and 24 hours (acute stage), 2 and 4 weeks (subacute stage), and 4, and 20 months (chronic stage) following MCAO. We found that the infarct volume progressively decreased between 1 and 4 weeks following MCAO, in parallel with the neurological recovery. Greater presence of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)-expressing microglia/macrophages was detected in the infarct lesion in the subacute and chronic stage, compared to the acute stage. Surprisingly, 98~99% of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) was found colocalized with CD68-expressing cells. CD68-expressing microglia/macrophages, rather than CD206+ cells, may exert anti-inflammatory effects by secreting TGFβ after the subacute stage of ischemic stroke. CD68+ microglia/macrophages can therefore be used as a potential therapeutic target.

    Show more
    Hyeon-Gu Yeo, Jung Joo Hong, Youngjeon Lee et al.

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Volume 28, Number 4, August 2019

Perspective

447 Experimental Neurobiology: The Past, Present, and Future

Young Jun Oh, Pyung-Lim Han and C. Justin Lee

Short Communication

451 Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 1 (VGLUT1)- and VGLUT2-containing Terminals on the Rat Jaw-closing γ-Motoneurons

Sook Kyung Park, Jae Hyun Hong, Jae Kwang Jung, Hyoung-Gon Ko and Yong Chul Bae

Original Articles

458 Increased CD68/TGFβ Co-expressing Microglia/Macrophages after Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rhesus Monkeys

Hyeon-Gu Yeo, Jung Joo Hong, Youngjeon Lee, Kyung Sik Yi, Chang-Yeop Jeon, Junghyung Park, Jinyoung Won, Jincheol Seo, Yu-Jin Ahn, Keonwoo Kim, Seung Ho Baek, Eun-Ha Hwang, Green Kim, Yeung Bae Jin, Kang-Jin Jeong, Bon-Sang Koo, Philyong Kang, Kyung Seob Lim, Sun-Uk Kim, Jae-Won Huh, Young-Hyun Kim, Yeonghoon Son, Ji-Su Kim, Chi-Hoon Choi, Sang-Hoon Cha and Sang-Rae Lee

474 Distinct Topographical Patterns of Spike-Wave Discharge in Transgenic and Pharmacologically Induced Absence Seizure Models

Soojung Lee, Eunjin Hwang, Mina Lee and Jee Hyun Choi

485 Spatial Learning and Motor Deficits in Vacuolar Protein Sorting-associated Protein 13b (Vps13b) Mutant Mouse

Min Jung Kim, Ro Un Lee, Jihae Oh, Ja Eun Choi, Hyopil Kim, Kyungmin Lee, Su-Kyeong Hwang, Jae-Hyung Lee, Jin-A Lee, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Chae-Seok Lim and Yong-Seok Lee

495 Memantine Attenuates Salicylate-induced Tinnitus Possibly by Reducing NR2B Expression in Auditory Cortex of Rat

Chul Ho Jang, Sueun Lee, Il Yong Park, Anji Song, Changjong Moon and Goang-Won Cho

504 HDAC Inhibition by Valproic Acid Induces Neuroprotection and Improvement of PD-like Behaviors in LRRK2 R1441G Transgenic Mice

Taewoo Kim, Seohoe Song, Yeongwon Park, Sinil Kang and Hyemyung Seo

516 Spinal Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II Increases Neurosteroid-metabolizing Cytochrome P450c17 Expression in a Rodent Model of Neuropathic Pain

Sheu-Ran Choi, Alvin J Beitz and Jang-Hern Lee

529 Calpain-2 as a Treatment Target in Prenatal Stress-induced Epileptic Spasms in Infant Rats

Hyeok Hee Kwon, Chiranjivi Neupane, Juhee Shin, Do Hyeong Gwon, Yuhua Yin, Nara Shin, Hyo Jung Shin, Jinpyo Hong, Jin Bong Park, YoonYoung Yi, Dong Woon Kim and Joon Won Kang

537 Downregulation of SIRT2 by Chronic Stress Reduces Expression of Synaptic Plasticity-related Genes through the Upregulation of Ehmt2

Sung Eun Wang, Seung Yeon Ko, Sungsin Jo, Hye-Ryeong Jo, Jinil Han, Yong-Seok Kim and Hyeon Son