Fig. 4. Rosmarinic acid increases the survival of neuronal cells in the lumbar cord of G93A-SOD1 transgenic mice. (A~H) Representative photomicrographs showing cresyl violet-stained lumbar L3~5 cords (A~D) or anti-ChAT-stained lumbar L3~5 cords (E~H) of non-transgenic control mice (Non-Tg; A, E), G93A-SOD1 transgenic control (Tg-Con; B, F), G93A-SOD1 mice treated with 400 mg/kg/day rosmarinic acid (Tg+RA; C, G), and G93A-SOD1 mice treated with 35 mg/kg/day riluzole (Tg+Rilu; D, H). (I, J) Quantification of the numbers of cresyl violet-stained cells (I) or anti-ChAT-stained cells (J) in the ventral horns of non-transgenic control mice (Non-Tg), G93A-SOD1 transgenic control (Tg-Con), G93A-SOD1 mice treated with 400 mg/kg/day rosmarinic acid (Tg+RA), and G93A-SOD1 mice treated with 35 mg/kg/day riluzole (Tg+Rilu). Cresyl violet-stained cells larger than 5 µm in diameter within the circled area in (A) (600 µm in diameter) were counted in both ventral horns of each section using TOMORO ScopeEye 3.6, as described in Materials and Methods. Anti-ChAT-stained cells were counted according to the same procedure. All animals were examined at 16 weeks of age. Scale bar; 500 µm. Data are presented as means±SEM (n= 8~13). **denotes difference compared to non-transgenic control (NonTg) at p<0.01. ##denotes difference compared to Tg-CON at p<0.01. One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post hoc test were used.
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