Fig. 2. The expression of pKr-2 in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). (A, B) Western blot analysis for pKr-1-2 and pKr-2, respectively, in the human SN. Patients with PD had increases in the levels of pKr-1-2 (A) and pKr-2 (B) in the SN compared to age-matched controls (CON). *p=0.018 vs. CON (t-test; n=4, each group); &p=0.008 vs. CON (t-test; n=3, each group). (C) The immunofluorescence staining for pKr-2 (red) and Iba1 (green) indicates that the expression of pKr-2 is co-localized within Iba1-positive cells in the SN of patients with PD. Scale bar, 10 µm. (D) Western blot analysis of Iba1 expression in the pKr-2-treated SN. Three days after treatment with pKr-2 (24 µg/2 µl) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, vehicle control), the levels of pKr-2-increased Iba1 expression were significantly decreased in TLR4 knockout (TLR4-/-) mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. *p<0.001 vs. PBS-treated mice (CON); &p=0.011 vs. pKr-2-treated WT mice (one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc analysis; n=4, each group).
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