Fig. 4. TSPO ligands suppress production of the TLR ligands-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in astrocytes. ELISA of TNF-α (A, B), IL-6 (C, D) and CCL2 (E, F) from Pam3CSK4 or LPS-stimulated astrocytes with pre-treatment with 50 µM of etifoxine, FGIN-1-27, PK11195, Ro5-4864, or XBD-173. Culture media were collected and TNF-α (G), IL-6 (H) and CCL2 (I) were measured by ELISA after stimulation with other TLR ligands with pretreatment with etifoxine or PK11195. TNF-α and IL-6 were measured at 12 h and CCL2 was measured at 24 h after stimulation, respectively. Data are presented as mean±SEM. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001 versus TLR ligand alone, respectively.
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