SPECT studies in patients with PTSD
SPECT studies of regional cerebral blood flow
StudyConditionPTSDControlIncreased/decreasedBrain regions
Sachinvala et al. (2000) [40]Resting178 (HC)Bilateral AC/PC regions, the right temporal and parietal regions, the right caudate/putamen region, and the left orbital and hippocampal regions Restricted to drug-free PTSD: caudate/putamen regions, anterior cingulate cortex, and the right orbital cortex
Chung et al. (2006) [41]Resting2364 (HC)Limbic regionsSuperior frontal gyrus and parietal/temporal regions
Liberzon et al. (1999) [42]Symptom provocation1414 (HC) 14 (non-PTSD)Left amygdala and left nucleus accumbens
Bonne et al. (2003) [43]Resting1111 (HC) 17 (non-PTSD)Cerebellum
Kim et al. (2007) [44]Resting1919 (HC)Right superior parietal lobeRight thalamus
Mirzaei et al. (2001) [46]Resting88 (HC)Interhemispheric asymmetryLeft > right in the temporoparietal region in PTSD group
Pavic et al. (2003) [47]Resting25-Interhemispheric asymmetryLeft > right in projection area of ventral basal ganglia in 13 of 25 participants
Zubieta et al. (1999) [48]Symptom provocation1212 (HC) 11 (non-PTSD)Medial prefrontal cortex
Liberzon et al. (1996) [49]Symptom provocation1-Subcortical regions, particularly the thalamus, during a flashback
Lindauer et al. (2004) [50]Symptom provocation1515 (non-PTSD)Right cuneusMedial frontal gyrus
SPECT studies examining treatment responses*
StudyTherapyPTSDControlIncreased/decreasedBrain regions
Seedat et al. (2004) [53]Pharmacotherapy11-Left medial temporal cortex
Peres et al. (2007) [54]Psychotherapy1611 (non-PTSD)Parietal lobes, left hippocampus, thalamus, and left prefrontal cortex
Lindauer et al. (2008) [55]Psychotherapy2015 (non-PTSD)Right middle frontal gyrus
Levin et al. (1999) [56]Psychotherapy6-Anterior cingulate gyrus and left frontal lobe in 4 of 6 patients
Lansing et al. (2005) [57]Psychotherapy6-Left inferior frontal gyrus Bilateral occipital lobe, left parietal lobe, and right precentral frontal lobe
Pagani et al. (2007) [58]Psychotherapy1527 (non-PTSD)Orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole, extended to the lateral temporal cortex and to the hypothalamus
SPECT studies of labeled ligand
StudyNeuroreceptor/transporterPTSDControlIncreased/decreasedBrain regions
Bremner et al. (2000) [59]BZD receptor binding1313 (HC)Prefrontal cortex
Fujita et al. (2004) [60]BZD receptors1919 (HC)-No regional differences
Hoexter et al. (2012) [61]DAT density2121 (non-PTSD)Bilateral striatal DAT

The ↑symbol indicates an increase, and ↓ a decrease.

*Only post-treatment findings are included.

AC, anterior cingulate; BZD, benzodiazepine; DAT, dopamine transporter; HC, healthy controls; PC, posterior cingulate; PTSD, posttraumatic disorder; SPECT, single photon emission computed tomography.

Exp Neurobiol 2016;25:277~295 https://doi.org/10.5607/en.2016.25.6.277
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