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Fig. 5. Treadmill training (TMT) enhances migration of NSCs in an IGF-1R-dependent manner. (A~D) Representative images of longitudinal spinal cord sections at 8 weeks after injury. Spinal cord sections were immunostained with anti-RFP (red) antibodies to visualize transplanted NSCs in the injured spinal cord. Boxed regions are magnified in (a~d). Scale bars indicate 500 µm. (a~d) Magnified images of the boxed regions in (A~D) showing NSC grafts that rostrally migrated. Scale bars indicate 200 µm. (a’~d’) Magnified images of the boxed regions in (a~d) showing migrating individual NSCs from the rostral grafts. Arrows indicated elongated cytoplasmic processes aligned with the direction of migration. Scale bars indicate 50 µm. (E) Quantification graphs comparing the extent of migration of NSCs at 4 and 8 weeks after injury. The migration extent was expressed as a migration index that was generated by dividing the longest longitudinal migratory distance by the longest transverse diameter of the RFP positive area. N=5 and 9 animals at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, for each group. * and *** represent p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively, by two-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Bonferroni analysis.
Exp Neurobiol 2018;27:489~507
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