Fig. 1. Endogenous inflammatory mediators in the brain. Brain inflammation can be caused by: aggregated proteins, such as prions, amyloid-β and α-synuclein; cell membrane components, including gangliosides and chromogranin (which are released from damaged nerve cells); and blood components, such as thrombin, prothrombin, plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator (which can leak through a rupture of the blood brain barrier). In addition, oxidative stress due to intermittent hypoxia is accompanied by chronic inflammation.
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