Fig. 12. A mechanistic model of volume regulation. (A) A mechanistic model for the sequence of events after HOS treatment. LRRC8 (yellow), AQP4 (blue), TTYH (red) were indicated in astrocytes (circle). Water or Cl− fluxes were indicated as a blue and green arrow, respectively. Bottom panel, the graphical diagram of cell swelling (grey) and channel activity (AQP4 indicated as blue, Lrrc8a indicated as yellow, and TTYH indicated as red) with the time after HOS treatment. (B) The schematic model for volume sensing and VRACswell activation upon inducing cell swelling by HOS. TTYH1, 2 and 3 might be located in the caveolae, which is the structure of the complex including caveolin-1 (green), Integrin (sky blue), and cytoskeleton (pink). After cell swelling, the inactive form of tyrosine kinase (purple) might be activated (orange, active TK).
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