Fig. 1. DA increases cAMP synthesis via a Gαs-GPCR. (A) The intracellular cAMP concentration was measured in primary astrocytes treated with different concentrations (0, 10, 30, 100, 300, 600, and 1,000 µM) of DA for 30 min. Alternatively, primary astrocytes were treated with 30 µM forskolin (FSK), a tmAC-specific activator, as a positive control. (B) The intracellular cAMP concentration was measured in primary astrocytes treated with 100 µM DA with or without pretreatment with 1 mM SQ22536 for 1 h, which is a tmAC-specific inhibitor. The red dotted line indicates the basal level of lactate release in untreated cells. All data are shown as mean±SEM (n=5) and were analyzed using the Student's t test. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.
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