Fig. 2. DA increases lactate release via a Gαs-GPCR. (A, B) Lactate release was measured in primary astrocytes treated with different concentrations (0, 10, 30, 100, 300, 600, 1,000, and 1,200 µM) of DA for 1 h (A) or with 100 µM DA for different durations (0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min) (B). Glucose (Glu) was used as a positive control. (C) Lactate release was measured in primary astrocytes pretreated with or without SQ22536 (a tmAC inhibitor) and/or gallein (a Gβγ signaling inhibitor) for 1 h and then treated with 100 µM DA. The red dotted line indicates the basal level of lactate release in untreated cells. All data are shown as mean±SEM (n=5) and were analyzed using the Student's t test. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, NS, not significant.
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