Fig. 1. The inhibition of ETC CI or CIII significantly increases the production of mitochondrial ROS. The mitochondrial sample (500 μg/ml) was loaded with DCF-DA (25 μM) for 10 minutes, then each inhibitor was added for 5, 10 or 15 minutes. (A, C, E) Rotenone, 6-OHDA, or antimycin A at each concentration was treated to the isolated mitochondria for 5 minutes to test the dose-dependent effects on the ROS production. (B, D, F) 0.5 μM rotenone, 5 μM 6-OHDA, or 0.5 μM antimycin A was treated during the indicated time for testing the time-dependence. All inhibitors dose- and time-dependently increased ROS production in the isolated mitochondria. Data indicate the mean±S.E. *p<0.05 and **p<0.01, compared with the control group.
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