Fig. 5. Validation of altered gene expression in NSCs from DMD patients with ID. (A) The level of phospho-YAP was increased in NSCs from the DMD patients with ID (DMD1 and DMD2) compared with levels in those from a normal individual and the DMD patients without ID (DMD3 and DMD4). (B) Increase in GDF6 mRNA in DMD1 and DMD2 was validated by qRT-PCR. (C) Decreased mRNA expression of ADCYAP1R1 was validated in NSCs from the DMD patients with ID by qRT-PCR. All experiments were repeated twice. Values denote means±SEMs. One-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s post hoc test. *p<0.05, ***p<0.0001.
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