Fig. 5. Analysis of pro-inflammatory responses in normal and SCI-induced rats on D7PI. The levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) (A) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (B), increased significantly in the SCI+vehicle-treated group but were significantly reduced by alendronate treatment. Under SCI, the expression levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (C) and serine peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 3N (Serpina3n) were significantly increased (D). Alendronate treatment did not suppress the increase in the COX-2 mRNA level (C) but it did prevent the up-regulation of Serpina3n expression (D). *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.01 vs. normal control. #p<0.05; ##p<0.01 vs. SCI+vehicle-treated group.
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