Pharmacological studies on tinnitus treatment

Drugs Type of drug Results Role on autophagy Authors
Nortriptyline Antidepressant Severity of tinnitus decreased Induction of autophagy Sullivan et al. (1989) [86]
Amitriptyline Antidepressant Intensity of tinnitus reduced and subjective relief from distress was observed Activation of ULK1, Beclin and LC3 Bayar et al. (2001) [60]
Imipramine Antidepressant Reduced the depression level Increases the expression of LC3 II Tandon et al. (1987) [87]
Naltrexone Anticonvulsant Reduced the distress and intensity Not known Vanneste et al. (2013) [88]
Cyclobenzaprine Muscle relaxant Intensity of tinnitus distress reduced Not known Vanneste et al. (2012) [89]
Memantine Glutamate antagonist Partial recovery was observed Upregulate autophagic flux Figueiredo et al. (2008) [90]
Flupirtine Glutamate antagonist No significant difference was observed Not known Salembier et al. (2006) [91]
Neramexane At higher dosage, resulted in decrease in annoyance and psychological impact Not known Suckfüll et al. (2011) [70]
Vitamin B12 No significant change Restoration of autophagic flux Berkiten et al. (2013) [77]
Exp Neurobiol 2022;31:232~242
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