Fig. 1. Mechanism behind peripheral tinnitus: (A) Trauma such as loud noises, salicylate induction or other ototoxic conditions cause loss of either inner or outer hair cells, or damage to the auditory system. This results in tinnitus. (B) Once the hair cell is damaged by trauma, excessive glutamate is released, causing increase in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity. This enhances the influx of abundant Ca2+ ions into the auditory nerve that results in excitotoxicity.
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