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Exp Neurobiol 2014; 23(3): 258-265

Published online September 30, 2014

© The Korean Society for Brain and Neural Sciences

Proposed Motor Scoring System in a Porcine Model of Parkinson’s Disease induced by Chronic Subcutaneous Injection of MPTP

Joon Ho Moon1#, Ji Ho Kim2#, Hyung-Jun Im3,4, Dong Soo Lee3,4, Eun Jung Park1, Kilyoung Song1, Hyun Ju Oh1, Su Bin Hyun2, Sang Chul Kang2, Hyunil Kim2, Hyo Eun Moon5,6,7, Hyung Woo Park5,6,7, Hong Jae Lee8, Eun Ji Kim9, Seokjoong Kim9, Byeong Chun Lee1,10* and Sun Ha Paek5,6,7*

1Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine and the Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, 2Optipharm Inc., Cheongwon 363-954, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 4Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, and College of Medicine or College of Pharmacy, 5Department of Neurosurgery, 6Cancer Research Institute, 7Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744, 8Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744, 9Toolgen, INC., Seoul 153-783, 10Institute of Green BioScience & Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang 232-916, Korea

Correspondence to: *To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Byeong Chun Lee
TEL: 82-2-880-1269, FAX: 82-2-873-1269
Sun Ha Paek
TEL: 82-2-2072-3993, FAX: 82-2-744-8459
#These authors contributed equally to this work.

Received: July 18, 2014; Revised: August 24, 2014; Accepted: August 25, 2014


Destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) is a common pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Characteristics of PD patients include bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, tremor at rest and disturbances in balance. For about four decades, PD animal models have been produced by toxin-induced or gene-modified techniques. However, in mice, none of the gene-modified models showed all 4 major criteria of PD. Moreover, distinguishing between PD model pigs and normal pigs has not been well established. Therefore, we planned to produce a pig model for PD by chronic subcutaneous administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), neurotoxin. Changes in behavioral patterns of pigs were thoroughly evaluated and a new motor scoring system was established for this porcine model that was based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in human PD patients. In summary, this motor scoring system could be helpful to analyze the porcine PD model and to confirm the pathology prior to further examinations, such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which is expensive, and invasive immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the brain.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, pig, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), scoring analysis