Exp Neurobiol 2016; 25(3): 103-112
Published online June 30, 2016
© The Korean Society for Brain and Neural Sciences
Zoltán Rusznák1†, Willem Henskens1,2, Emma Schofield1, Woojin S. Kim1,3# and YuHong Fu1,3*#
1Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, NSW 2031,2Prince of Wales Clinical School, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales,3School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Correspondence to: *To whom correspondence should be addressed.
TEL: 61 2 93991056, FAX: 61 2 9399 1005
#Joint senior authors
†Present address: Australian Catholic University, Canberra Campus, ACT 2602, Australia
The subgranular zone (SGZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) are developmental remnants of the germinal regions of the brain, hence they retain the ability to generate neuronal progenitor cells in adult life. Neurogenesis in adult brain has an adaptive function because newly produced neurons can integrate into and modify existing neuronal circuits. In contrast to the SGZ and SVZ, other brain regions have a lower capacity to produce new neurons, and this usually occurs via parenchymal and periventricular cell genesis. Compared to neurogenesis, gliogenesis occurs more prevalently in the adult mammalian brain. Under certain circumstances, interaction occurs between neurogenesis and gliogenesis, facilitating glial cells to transform into neuronal lineage. Therefore, modulating the balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis may present a new perspective for neurorestoration, especially in diseases associated with altered neurogenesis and/or gliogenesis, cell loss, or disturbed homeostasis of cellular constitution. The present review discusses important neuroanatomical features of adult neurogenesis and gliogenesis, aiming to explore how these processes could be modulated toward functional repair of the adult brain.
Keywords: Neurogenesis, gliogenesis, aging, neurodegeneration, neurorestoration