• the Korean Society for Brain and Neural Sciences


Original Article

Exp Neurobiol 2018; 27(4): 257-266

Published online August 30, 2018

© The Korean Society for Brain and Neural Sciences

A Brain Atlas of the Long Arm Octopus, Octopus minor

Seung-Hyun Jung, Ha Yeun Song, Young Se Hyun, Yu-Cheol Kim, Ilson Whang, Tae-Young Choi, and Seonmi Jo*

Department of Genetic Resources Research, National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea (MABIK), Seocheon 33662, Korea.

Correspondence to: *To whom correspondence should be addressed.
TEL: 82-41-950-0756, FAX: 82-41-750-0765
These authors contributed equally to this work.

Received: July 22, 2018; Revised: August 5, 2018; Accepted: August 9, 2018

Cephalopods have the most advanced nervous systems and intelligent behavior among all invertebrates. Their brains provide comparative insights for understanding the molecular and functional origins of the human brain. Although brain maps that contain information on the organization of each subregion are necessary for a study on the brain, no whole brain atlas for adult cephalopods has been constructed to date. Here, we obtained sagittal and coronal sections covering the entire brain of adult Octopus minor (Sasaki), which belongs to the genus with the most species in the class Cephalopoda and is commercially available in East Asia throughout the year. Sections were stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) to visualize the cellular nuclei and subregions. H&E images of the serial sections were obtained at 30~70-µm intervals for the sagittal plain and at 40~80-µm intervals for the coronal plain. Setting the midline point of the posterior end as the fiducial point, we also established the distance coordinates of each image. We found that the brain had the typical brain structure of the Octopodiformes. A number of subregions were discriminated by a Hematoxylin-positive layer, the thickness and neuronal distribution pattern of which varied markedly depending upon the region. We identified more than 70 sub-regions based on delineations of representative H&E images. This is the first brain atlas, not only for an Octopodiformes species but also among adult cephalopods, and we anticipate that this atlas will provide a valuable resource for comparative neuroscience research.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords: Cephalopoda, Octopodiformes, Brain, Anatomy, Comparative histology