• the Korean Society for Brain and Neural Sciences


Original Article

Exp Neurobiol 2021; 30(4): 263-274

Published online August 31, 2021

© The Korean Society for Brain and Neural Sciences

Altered Gene Expression Profiles in Neural Stem Cells Derived from Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients with Intellectual Disability

Jahong Koo1,2, Subin Park1,3, Soo-Eun Sung1, Jeehun Lee4, Dae Soo Kim2,5, Jungwoon Lee2,5, Jae-Ran Lee1, Nam-Soon Kim1,2 and Da Yong Lee1,2*

1Rare Disease Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, 2Department of Functional Genomics, KRIBB School of Bioscience, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, 3Department of Biochemistry, Department of Medical Science, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon 35015, 4Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, 5Environmental Diseases Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Korea

Correspondence to: *To whom correspondence should be addressed.
TEL: 82-42-860-4475, FAX: 82-42-879-8495

Received: April 16, 2021; Revised: July 9, 2021; Accepted: July 12, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by below-average intelligence (intelligence quotient of <70) accompanied by adaptive behavior deficits. Defects in the functions of neural stem cells during brain development are closely linked to the pathogenesis of ID. To understand the molecular etiology of ID, we examined neural stem cells from individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a genetic disorder in which approximately one-third of the patients exhibit ID. In this study, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a normal individual and DMD patients with and without ID to identify ID-specific functional and molecular abnormalities. We found defects in neural ectoderm formation in the group of DMD patients with ID. Our transcriptome analysis of patient-derived neural stem cells revealed altered expression of genes related to the hippo signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, implicating these in the pathogenesis of ID in patients with DMD.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords: Intellectual disability, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Induced pluripotent stem cell, Gene expression