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Exp Neurobiol 2003; 12(2): 81-95
Published online December 31, 2003
© The Korean Society for Brain and Neural Sciences
Young-Min Chung, Hee-Kwon Park and Jae-Kyu Roh*
Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: *To whom correspondence should be addressed.
TEL: +82-2-760-3265, FAX: +82-2-3672-4949
The first two authors contributed equally to this study (YM C. and HK P.).
A various kinds of biochemical markers are expressed during or after acute focal ischemia such as adhesion molecules, cytokines, chemokines, variable heat shock protein, apoptosis related genes, in or around or remote from infarct core. Related stroke, diverse studies and experiments in vivo or in vitro have been progressed about inflammation and gene expression related cell death or survival. In the past, the studies have been focused on animal or in vitro model, whereas recently on human himself. The ischemic penumbra has been described in the point view of blood flow and physiologic parameters but this article, in other point view, focused on molecular views. Apoptosis related genes induced after focal ischemia is the example. The heat shock protein is induced in glia at the edges of an infarct and in neurons often remote from the infarct. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is also induced after focal ischemia in regions beyond the HSP70 induction. The region of HIF induction is thought to represent the areas of decreased cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery. Immediate early genes are induced in other than focal ischemic lesions, such as, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus. These changes in gene expression occur due to ischemia-induced spreading depression or depolarization and could contribute to plastic changes in brain after stroke. Other biochemical markers including VEGF, interleukin, TGF also must be mentioned. The spatial, temporal, and cellular basis of gene expression must be considered before assumptions regarding therapeutic potential can be addressed. Thereafter, these facts can be implicated in therapeutic trials. Here, we review about this and the direction in the future.
Keywords: Stroke, biochemical marker