Highlights
  • Review Article | June 30, 2022

    The Cranial and Spinal window enables structural and functional neural imaging of various CNS regions of interest for an anesthetized or awake animal. Optical imaging can be combined with other neuroscience methodologies for studying the nervous system with animal disease models and behavioral tests.

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    The Cranial and Spinal window enables structural and functional neural imaging of various CNS regions of interest for an anesthetized or awake animal. Optical imaging can be combined with other neuroscience methodologies for studying the nervous system with animal disease models and behavioral tests.
    Chanmi Yeon, Jeong Myo Im, Minsung Kim et al.
  • Short Communication | June 30, 2022

    Chronic high-fat diet increases astrocytic hypertrophy with increased GABA production by MAOB, and increased neuronal high-affinity extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, but unaltered tonic inhibition due to increased GABA clearance by GAT1 in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

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    Chronic high-fat diet increases astrocytic hypertrophy with increased GABA production by MAOB, and increased neuronal high-affinity extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, but unaltered tonic inhibition due to increased GABA clearance by GAT1 in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
    Moonsun Sa, Jung Moo Lee, Mingu Gordon Park et al.
  • Original Article | June 30, 2022

    We generated astrocyte-specific MAOB conditional knockout mice and observed a major reduction in tonic GABA inhibition in the cerebellum and striatum.

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    We generated astrocyte-specific MAOB conditional knockout mice and observed a major reduction in tonic GABA inhibition in the cerebellum and striatum.
    Jung Moo Lee, Moonsun Sa, Heeyoung An et al.
  • Original Article | June 30, 2022

    IL-10 exerts neuro-protection earlier after TBI with the attenuation of microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, but with upregulation of their phagocytic phenotype. (Created with BioRender.com)

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    IL-10 exerts neuro-protection earlier after TBI with the attenuation of microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, but with upregulation of their phagocytic phenotype. (Created with BioRender.com)
    Mahsa Shanaki-Barvasad, Beatriz Almolda, Berta González and Bernardo Castellano
  • Original Article | June 30, 2022

    Dyshomeostasis of master clock, BMAL1, in P301S tau mice is accompanied by altered circadian oscillation of Hsp70 and tau solubility in hippocampus.

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    Dyshomeostasis of master clock, BMAL1, in P301S tau mice is accompanied by altered circadian oscillation of Hsp70 and tau solubility in hippocampus.
    Song Mi Han, Yu Jung Jang, Eun Young Kim and Sun Ah Park
  • Technologue | June 30, 2022

    We simultaneously recorded LFP and calcium signals in the hippocampus of freely behaving mice and identified neurons showing synchronous calcium elevation to encode SWRs.

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    We simultaneously recorded LFP and calcium signals in the hippocampus of freely behaving mice and identified neurons showing synchronous calcium elevation to encode SWRs.
    Chae Young Kim, Sang Jeong Kim and Fabian Kloosterman
Vol.31 No.3 | June 30, 2022

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Cranial and Spinal Window Preparation for in vivo Optical Neuroimaging in Rodents and Related Experimental Techniques

Optical neuroimaging provides an effective tool for visualizing biological events, which is significant in the multi-scale investigation of neural structures and functions. Typically, transparent windows are necessary for optical in vivo studies of animals peering into the central nervous system (CNS). The window designs and materials vary depending on the study aims. Furthermore, these windows can be modified to accommodate other techniques such as electrophysiology by implementing auxiliary apparatuses to record relevant parameters, including behavioral traits. This Review addresses the advancements in the CNS window preparation and experimental setup for in vivo investigation of animal brains at the microscopic level.